Cetoacidosis diabética en niños

  • Santiago Saldarriaga-Betancur Clínica Integral de Diabetes
Palabras clave: diabetes mellitus tipo 1, insulina, cetosis, deshidratación, hiperglucemia, cetoacidosis diabética.

Resumen

La cetoacidosis diabética es la complicación aguda de la diabetes más frecuente, con una alta incidencia en la población pediátrica, múltiples desencadenantes y un alto costo al sistema de salud. El punto de partida fisiopatológico es el déficit absoluto o relativo de la insulina que lleva a un incremento de las hormonas contrarreguladoras para obtener el substrato energético a partir de la glucogenólisis, la gluconeogénesis, la lipólisis y la proteólisis. Lo anterior genera un aumento de los cuerpos cetónicos que produce acidosis metabólica con una importante deshidratación y trastorno electrolítico que en conjunto exacerban y perpetúan la disfunción metabólica. El tratamiento de esta entidad tiene como base la insulinoterapia por vía intravenosa o subcutánea, incluso cuando se han alcanzado niveles óptimos de glucemia, y una hidratación adecuada. La transición a insulina subcutánea al detener el goteo de insulina es importante para prevenir la recurrencia de la cetoacidosis diabética. Con este manuscrito se pretende brindar al lector una revisión actualizada de un tema de alta relevancia clínica, que sirva como herramienta al momento de ejercer un enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico de la cetoacidosis diabética.

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Biografía del autor/a

Santiago Saldarriaga-Betancur , Clínica Integral de Diabetes

Médico general, Grupo de investigación IDEAS (Innovación, Desarrollo y Avances en Endocrinología), Clínica Integral de Diabetes (CLID). Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Saldarriaga-Betancur S. Cetoacidosis diabética en niños. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de noviembre de 2016 [citado 22 de abril de 2021];22(11-12):511-26. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/98
Publicado
2016-11-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio
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