Cortisol: mediciones de laboratorio y aplicación clínica

  • Sara Hernández-Quiceno Universidad CES
  • Esteban Uribe-Bojanini Universidad CES
  • Juan M. Alfaro-Velásquez Universidad de Antioquia
  • Germán Campuzano-Maya Universidad de Antioquia
  • Lina M. Salazar-Peláez Universidad CES
Palabras clave: cortisol, orina, suero, saliva, globulina de unión a corticosteroide, síndrome de Cushing, insuficiencia suprarrenal.

Resumen

La medición del cortisol total en sangre ha sido parte fundamental en el estudio del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-adrenal y de sus alteraciones, tales como el síndrome de Cushing y la insuficiencia adrenal. El cortisol circula en plasma en su mayoría unido a proteínas, pero su fracción libre es la biológicamente activa y se puede medir en sangre, orina y saliva. La secreción de cortisol no es homogénea durante el día, por el contrario, está regida por un ritmo circadiano, que a su vez, se puede ver afectado por diferentes estresores físicos y psicológicos. Por esta razón, se cuenta con pruebas como el cortisol en orina de 24 horas que permite evaluar la producción diaria de cortisol. También es posible realizar pruebas funcionales como la supresión de cortisol con dexametasona para el estudio del síndrome de Cushing y la prueba de estímulo con la hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH) como parte del estudio de la insuficiencia adrenal. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo realizar una puesta al día sobre los diferentes métodos para medir el cortisol como parte del estudio del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-adrenal, haciendo énfasis en su utilidad para el diagnóstico de condiciones patológicas endocrinas.

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Biografía del autor/a

Sara Hernández-Quiceno, Universidad CES

Médica, Pediatra, Endocrinóloga pediatra, Universidad de Antioquia, Pediatría Universidad CES. Medellín, Colombia.

Esteban Uribe-Bojanini, Universidad CES

Médico, residente en Dermatología, Universidad CES. Medellín, Colombia.

Juan M. Alfaro-Velásquez, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico, Pediatra, Endocrinólogo pediatra. Director Departamento de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Germán Campuzano-Maya, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico, especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Docente Ad Honorem, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Médico y Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico. Medellín, Colombia.

Lina M. Salazar-Peláez, Universidad CES

Bacterióloga y laboratorista clínica, MSc en Biotecnología, PhD en Ciencias de la Salud. Docente de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad CES. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Hernández-Quiceno S, Uribe-Bojanini E, Alfaro-Velásquez JM, Campuzano-Maya G, Salazar-Peláez LM. Cortisol: mediciones de laboratorio y aplicación clínica. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de marzo de 2016 [citado 16 de agosto de 2022];22(3-4):147-64. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/74
Publicado
2016-03-01
Sección
Endocrinología
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