Virus de Epstein-Barr: más que una mononucleosis infecciosa

Palabras clave: EBV, virus de Epstein-Barr, esclerosis múltiple, carcinoma nasofaríngeo, cáncer gástrico, linfoma de Burkitt, linfoma de Hodgkin, carcinogénesis.

Resumen

El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) fue el primer virus asociado a neoplasias en humanos. Infecta el 95 % de la población mundial, y aunque usualmente es asintomático, puede causar mononucleosis infecciosa y se relaciona con más de 200.000 casos de neoplasias al año. De igual forma, se asocia con esclerosis múltiple y otras enfermedades autoinmunes. A pesar de ser catalogado como un virus oncogénico, solo un pequeño porcentaje de los individuos infectados desarrollan neoplasias asociadas a VEB. Su persistencia involucra la capacidad de alternar entre una serie de programas de latencia, y de reactivarse cuando tiene la necesidad de colonizar nuevas células B de memoria, con el fin de sostener una infección de por vida y poder transmitirse a nuevos hospederos. En esta revisión se presentan las generalidades del VEB, además de su asociación con varios tipos de neoplasias, como son el carcinoma nasofaríngeo, el carcinoma gástrico, el linfoma de Hodgkin y el linfoma de Burkitt, y la esclerosis múltiple. Adicionalmente, se describen los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de las diferentes entidades, algunos de ellos no completamente dilucidados.

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Biografía del autor/a

Ana Isabel Toro-Montoya, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica, MSc en Virología. Directora Científica, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Toro-Montoya AI. Virus de Epstein-Barr: más que una mononucleosis infecciosa. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 3 de enero de 2023 [citado 29 de enero de 2023];27(1):51-64. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/621
Publicado
2023-01-03
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