Fisiología de la tiroides e hipotiroidismo en el embarazo. Revisión de tema

Palabras clave: glándula tiroides, embarazo, gestación, hipotiroidismo, fisiología.

Resumen

Durante el embarazo se generan múltiples cambios fisiológicos a nivel hormonal para llevar a cabo de manera satisfactoria la gestación. Uno de los ejes hormonales con cambios más importantes que repercuten de manera directa en el desarrollo fetal y bienestar materno es el tiroideo, el cual presenta modificaciones para lograr suplir las necesidades de hormona tiroidea tanto materna como fetal, principalmente en las primeras etapas del embarazo. Entre estas, se describen cambios en la cantidad de proteínas transportadoras de hormonas, aumento en el estímulo y producción de hormonas tiroideas, incremento del aclaramiento renal de yodo y alteración en la actividad de las desyodinasas. Estos mecanismos ofrecen suficiente hormona tiroidea al feto, el cual es dependiente del aporte materno. Un desajuste en cualquiera de estos mecanismos, puede conducir al desarrollo de hipotiroidismo con múltiples complicaciones, como la pérdida del embarazo e hipertensión gestacional, entre otras. Una tamización oportuna y un tratamiento temprano pueden evitar estos desenlaces adversos. De ahí la necesidad fundamental de conocer y comprender el comportamiento del eje tiroideo en la gestación.

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Biografía del autor/a

Myriam Vanessa Rueda-Galvis, Universidad de Antioquia

Médica, Especialista en Medicina Interna. Residente de Endocrinología, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Sección de Endocrinología y Metabolismo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8007-3167.

Carlos Alfonso Builes-Barrera, Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital San Vicente Fundación

Médico, Especialista en Medicina Interna, Especialista en Endocrinología. Departamento de Medicina Interna, Sección de Endocrinología y Metabolismo, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital San Vicente Fundación. Medellín, Colombia.
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6217-117X.

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Cómo citar
1.
Rueda-Galvis MV, Builes-Barrera CA. Fisiología de la tiroides e hipotiroidismo en el embarazo. Revisión de tema. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 11 de enero de 2022 [citado 28 de junio de 2022];26(1):15-3. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/557
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2022-01-11
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