Uroanálisis: más que un examen de rutina

  • Germán Campuzano Maya Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia
  • Mario Arbeláez Gómez Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: uroanálisis, citoquímico de orina, orina.

Resumen

Un uroanálisis (citoquímico de orina) completo incluye el exámen físico, químico y microscópico. La muestra ocasional de orina es útil en la mayoría de los casos, pero esta muestras deben ser evaluadas dentro de las dos primeras horas después de haber sido recogidas. La orina turbia frecuentemente es el resultado de cristales de fosfatos precipitados en orinas alcalinas, aunque también puede estar causado por piura. Un olor fuerte puede ser el resultado más de la concentración de la orina que el efecto de una infección del tracto urinario. Puede ser útil la evaluación de la orina por medio de tirillas, pero se debe recordar que también pueden ocurrir los falsos positivos y negativos con éste método. La gravedad específica provee una gran información sobre el estado de hidratación del paciente. La microhematuria tiene una gran gama de causas, desde las benignas hasta las que ponen en peligro la vida del paciente. Las causas glomerulares, renales o urológicas de la microhematuria pueden ser fácilmente diferenciadas por otros elementos del uroanálisis. Aunque la proteinuria transitoria típicamente es una condición benigna, la proteinuria persistente requiere evaluaciones más complejas. Las infecciones del tracto urinario no complicadas diagnosticadas por estereasa leucocitaria positiva o nitritos positivos pueden ser tratadas sin la necesidad del cultivo.

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Biografía del autor/a

Germán Campuzano Maya, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico S.A. Medellín, Colombia.

Mario Arbeláez Gómez, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico especialista en Medicina Interna y Nefrología. Profesor Titular. Jefe, Sección de nefrología, departamento de medicna interna, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Campuzano Maya G, Arbeláez Gómez M. Uroanálisis: más que un examen de rutina. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de noviembre de 2006 [citado 16 de agosto de 2022];12(11-12):511-55. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/549
Publicado
2006-11-01
Sección
Orina

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