Helicobacter pylori y los linfomas MALT del estómago

  • Germán Campuzano Maya Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: Helicobacter pylori, linfoma gástrico, linfoma MALT.

Resumen

Los linfomas MALT del estómago son tumores derivados del MALT que como resultado de la infección por Helicobacter pylori se desarrolla en la mucosa gástrica. El desarrollo de los linfomas del MALT del estómago es un proceso secuencial, en donde la infección por Helicobacter pylori inicia una reacción linfoide en la mucosa gástrica que da como resultado la formación de un MALT. Los linfomas MALT se pueden presentar por dos vías: partiendo de la «malignización» del MALT, con el desarrollo de un linfoma de bajo grado, dependiente de un estimulo antigénico y con cambios cromosómicos en el tiempo que lo hacen evolucionar a formas de alto grado, independientes del estímulo antigénico o de novo como resultado de una alteración cromosómica inducida, en el caso de los linfomas MALT del estómago, por Helicobacter pylori. El tratamiento de los linfomas MALT depende de la localización, de la clasificación, del grado de diferenciación (bajo grado versus alto grado) y de las alteraciones cromosómicas asociadas. En las etapas iniciales del linfoma, en los linfomas de bajo grado, cuando aún es dependiente inmunológicamente de Helicobacter pylori la curación se alcanza tras la erradicación de la infección; en los estados avanzados, cuando ya el linfoma no depende inmunológicamente de la bacteria el tratamiento se hace con cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia solas o asociadas dependiendo de las condiciones del paciente y del entorno médico-asistencial en donde se desenvuelve. El futuro de los linfomas gástricos depende de que se detecten cuando aún son sensibles a la erradicación de la infección por Helicobacter pylori o que disminuya la infección en la población como resultado del mejoramiento de las condiciones socioeconómicas de la población, incluida la potabilización del agua y el control de excretas y en un futuro mediante la inmunoprevención a través de la vacunación de toda la población.

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Biografía del autor/a

Germán Campuzano Maya, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico S.A. Medellín, Colombia.

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Malik AA, Ganti AK, Potti A, Lev

Cómo citar
1.
Campuzano Maya G. Helicobacter pylori y los linfomas MALT del estómago. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de marzo de 2006 [citado 22 de enero de 2022];12(3-4):111-42. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/533
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2006-03-01
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La Clínica y el Laboratorio

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