Utilidad del extendido de sangre periférica: los leucocitos. Parte 2 de 3

  • Germán Campuzano Maya Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: extendido de sangre periférica, morfología leucocitaria, clínica.

Resumen

a pesar de los grandes avances tecnológicos relacionados con el hemograma, y en particular los derivados de los autoanalizadores de hematología, cada vez más sofisticados y completos, el extendido de sangre periférica continúa siendo el “estándar de oro” del diagnóstico de hematología. De acuerdo con las buenas prácticas de hematología, el extendido de sangre periférica está indicado en todos los hemogramas que muestren alguna desviación en los recuentos directos, indirectos o calculados, o cuando se sospeche clínicamente de una enfermedad de origen hematológico o de origen no hematológico con manifestaciones hematológicas, aun con parámetros entre rangos esperados para la edad y el género. En el extendido de sangre periférica es posible observar alteraciones relacionadas con la morfología de los eritrocitos, leucocitos y las plaquetas. En este módulo se analizarán los aspectos más importantes 1) del recuento total de leucocitos que define los conceptos leucocitosis y leucopenia, 2) del recuento diferencial de leucocitos que define los conceptos de neutrofilia, neutropenia, agranulocitosis, eosinofilia, eosinopenia, basofilia, basopenia, linfocitosis, linfocitopenia, monocitosis y monocitopenia y 3) los hallazgos más representativos de la morfología de los glóbulos blancos como la agregación de leucocitos, las desviaciones derecha e izquierda, la anomalía de Pelger-Huët, la anomalía de May-Hegglin, los cuerpos de Döhle, el síndrome de Chédiak-Higashi, la anomalía de Alder-Reilly, los cuerpos de Auer y los cuerpos de Barr, entre otros. Se definen los aspectos morfológicos de las diferentes series que conforman los leucocitos circulantes y se relacionan con los aspectos clínicos más relevantes. Este módulo, provee al profesional de laboratorio elementos que le permiten identificar adecuadamente las diferentes alteraciones de los leucocitos, en tanto que al médico le proporciona información para que relacione los hallazgos morfológicos de estas células con la clínica.

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Biografía del autor/a

Germán Campuzano Maya, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Profesor Ad Honorem, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Médico Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico S.A. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Campuzano Maya G. Utilidad del extendido de sangre periférica: los leucocitos. Parte 2 de 3. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de septiembre de 2008 [citado 8 de diciembre de 2021];14(9-10):411-55. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/484
Publicado
2008-09-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio

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