Sistema de grupo sanguíneo ABO

  • Carlos Alberto Arbeláez García Instituto Neurológico de Antioquia. Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana.
Palabras clave: grupo sanguíneo ABO, antígenos, anticuerpos, genética, inmunología.


El descubrimiento del grupo sanguíneo ABO en el año 1900 por el científico austríaco Karl Landsteiner, causó gran entusiasmo en la comunidad científica de la época. Hasta entonces, toda la sangre se consideraba igual en todas las personas, y no se entendían las consecuencias a menudo trágicas de las transfusiones de sangre. Con los descubrimientos realizados en el grupo sanguíneo ABO, no sólo la transfusión de sangre en el mundo se hizo más segura, sino que permitió el estudio de una de las primeras características hereditarias humanas descubiertas más importantes en medicina. El grupo sanguíneo ABO ha sido también utilizado para la confirmación de pruebas de paternidad, para el estudio de las víctimas en medicina forense, y por los antropólogos en el estudio de diversas poblaciones. Los antígenos de grupo sanguíneo ABO son de gran importancia en medicina transfusional; son los más inmunogénicos de todos los antígenos de los grupos sanguíneos, convirtiendo la transfusión de sangre ABO incompatible en la causa más común de muerte por este procedimiento. A pesar de su importancia clínica, las funciones fisiológicas de los antígenos del grupo sanguíneo ABO siguen siendo un misterio. Se han realizado numerosas asociaciones entre algunos fenotipos ABO y una mayor susceptibilidad a determinadas enfermedades; por ejemplo, el grupo sanguíneo O se ha asociado con mayor riesgo de desarrollar úlcera gástrica, en tanto que el grupo sanguíneo A se ha asociado con mayor riesgo de cáncer gástrico. El presente módulo revisa las características genéticas, bioquímicas, serológicas y de laboratorio del grupo sanguíneo ABO, y su importancia en la medicina transfusional.


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Biografía del autor/a

Carlos Alberto Arbeláez García, Instituto Neurológico de Antioquia. Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana.

Médico Especialista en Medicina de Laboratorio. Diplomado en Medicina Transfusional. Coordinador Laboratorio Clínico, Instituto Neurológico de Antioquia. Calle 55 No. 46-36. Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
Arbeláez García CA. Sistema de grupo sanguíneo ABO. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de julio de 2009 [citado 22 de enero de 2022];15(7-8):329-47. Disponible en:
Banco de sangre

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