Tamización y prevención del cáncer cervical causado por papilomavirus

  • Ana Isabel Toro Montoya Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.
  • Christian Piedrahita Ochoa Universidad de Antioquia
  • Gildardo Gallego Noreña Clínica Las Américas
Palabras clave: PVH, papilomavirus, cáncer, epidemiología, patogénesis, clínica, iagnóstico, vacunas.

Resumen

El papilomavirus humano (PVH) ha sido implicado como el agente causal del condiloma acuminado y de carcinomas anogenitales. Los papilomavirus son pequeños virus tumorales compuestos por DNA que infectan células epiteliales e inducen lesiones proliferativas. Los datos epidemiológicos en conjunto con estudios in vitro e in vivo han implicado los PVH en el desarrollo de estas enfermedades malignas epiteliales. Más del 90% de todos los carcinomas cervicales son positivos para la infección por PVH. La mayoría de estas lesiones son ocasionadas por tipos del PVH de alto riesgo. En esta revisión se analizan las propiedades biológicas básicas del PVH, los mecanismos de transformación celular, también los mecanismos del PVH asociados a la carcinogénesis en los huéspedes normales y en condiciones especiales como la gestación o en los pacientes inmunocomprometidos. El artículo plantea el importante papel que juega el tamizaje cervical oportuno y periódico en la prevención del cáncer, y de igual manera presenta al personal de salud la terminología adecuada y aceptada para el informe de los hallazgos citológicos. Finalmente, se describen las vacunas disponibles contra el PVH, su utilidad en la prevención y se mencionan las controversias que se han generado a su alrededor.

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Biografía del autor/a

Ana Isabel Toro Montoya, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica. Magíster en Virología. Coordinadora Científica, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.

Christian Piedrahita Ochoa, Universidad de Antioquia

Microbiólogo y Bioanalista, Estudiante de Maestría. Grupo Reproducción, Grupo Centauro, Grupo Nacer-SSR, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Gildardo Gallego Noreña, Clínica Las Américas

Médico especialista en Ginecología y Obstetricia. Ginecólogo y Mastólogo, Clínica Las Américas. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Toro Montoya AI, Piedrahita Ochoa C, Gallego Noreña G. Tamización y prevención del cáncer cervical causado por papilomavirus. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de noviembre de 2010 [citado 17 de octubre de 2021];16(11-12):511-46. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/404
Publicado
2010-11-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio

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