Osteoporosis: enfoque clínico y de laboratorio

  • José Fernando Molina Restrepo Clínica del Prado, CES
  • Luis Alonso González Naranjo Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: osteoporosis, epidemiología, patogénesis, diagnóstico, marcadores bioquímicos, laboratorio.

Resumen

La osteoporosis es una enfermedad esquelética sistémica caracterizada por baja masa ósea y deterioro de la microarquitectura del tejido óseo que predisponen a un mayor riesgo de fractura. La pérdida de hueso puede ocurrir como resultado de un desequilibrio entre la formación de hueso y la resorción ósea. Durante los primeros años después de la menopausia, las mujeres pueden tener una pérdida rápida de hueso. Esta pérdida posmenopáusica temprana se da principalmente como resultado de la mayor actividad de los osteoclastos, y colocan a las mujeres en un riesgo mayor que los hombres de fractura por osteoporosis. La osteoporosis se diagnostica clínica o radiológicamente. La osteoporosis clínicamente puede presentarse con fracturas por bajo impacto o por fracturas por fragilidad; sin embargo, se diagnostica más comúnmente con un resultado de densitometría ósea con un T-score de -2,5 o menos en cadera total, cuello femoral o columna lumbar. Los marcadores bioquímicos de recambio óseo aportan pruebas de utilidad clínica de los procesos normales o patológicos de la actividad de las células óseas en el esqueleto, y puede aportar pruebas sobre la eficacia de la terapia antirresortiva. En este módulo se resumen los aspectos básicos de la fisiología ósea y el proceso que conduce a la pérdida ósea. Se discuten también la epidemiología, patogénesis y manifestaciones clínicas de la osteoporosis, así como el enfoque diagnóstico para el paciente con pérdida de masa ósea. Por último, algunas estrategias para la prevención de la osteoporosis se mencionan brevemente.

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Biografía del autor/a

José Fernando Molina Restrepo, Clínica del Prado, CES

Médico especialista en Medicina Interna y Reumatología. Profesor Asociado de Reumatología, CES. Director Científico, Reumalab, Centro Integral de Reumatología. Densitometría Clínica, Unidad de Osteoporosis, Clínica del Prado. Medellín, Colombia.

Luis Alonso González Naranjo, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico especialista en Medicina Interna y Reumatología. Profesor Asistente, Sección de Reumatología, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Molina Restrepo JF, González Naranjo LA. Osteoporosis: enfoque clínico y de laboratorio. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de marzo de 2010 [citado 25 de octubre de 2021];16(3-4):111-40. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/383
Publicado
2010-03-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio

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