Papel del linfocito B en el rechazo crónico del trasplante

  • John Fredy Nieto Ríos Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl
  • Juan David Ramírez Barrera Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl
  • Cristian Mauricio Álvarez Universidad de Antioquia
  • Luis Fernando García Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: acomodación, aloanticuerpo, aloantígeno, célula B, linfoangiogénesis, rechazo crónico, regulación, tolerancia, trasplante.

Resumen

El rechazo crónico se ha convertido en la principal causa de disfunción tardía y de pérdida de un aloinjerto. El linfocito B juega un papel amplio en el rechazo crónico de un trasplante y su papel protagónico ha sido enfocado principalmente a la producción de anticuerpos. Sin embargo, es bien conocido que el linfocito B tiene otras funciones importantes que están implicadas en múltiples procesos inmunológicos, pero su rol en el rechazo de los trasplantes no se conoce a profundidad. Estas funciones son: presentación de antígenos y activación de los linfocitos T CD4+; regulación por medio de la producción de citoquinas de las células T, células dendríticas y macrófagos; y dirección de la expansión local linfática (linfoangiogénesis) por medio de la producción de factores de crecimiento y quemoquinas. En esta revisión se presenta una visión general de la inmunobiología del trasplante y posteriormente el tema se enfoca en el papel de la célula B en el rechazo crónico de trasplantes, haciendo énfasis en el trasplante renal.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

John Fredy Nieto Ríos, Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl

Médico Residente II de Nefrología, Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl. Medellín, Colombia.

Juan David Ramírez Barrera, Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl

Médico Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl. Medellín, Colombia.

Cristian Mauricio Álvarez, Universidad de Antioquia

Doctor en Inmunología, Ph Grupo de Inmunología Celular e Inmunogenética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Luis Fernando García, Universidad de Antioquia

Doctor en Inmunología, Ph Jefe del Grupo de Inmunología Celular e Inmunogenética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Referencias bibliográficas

Rifle G, Mousson C, Martin L, Guignier F, Hajji K. Donor-specific antibodies in allograft rejec- tion: clinical and experimental data. Transplan- tation 2005; 79: S14-S18. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000153292.49621.60

Takemoto SK, Terasaki PI, Gjertson DW, Cecka JM. Twelve years' experience with national sharing of HLA-matched cadaveric kidneys for transplantation. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1078-1084. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200010123431504

Takemoto S, Port FK, Claas FH, Duquesnoy RJ. HLA matching for kidney transplantation. Hum Immunol 2004; 65: 1489-1505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2004.06.008

Vadivel N, Tullius SG, Chandraker A. Chronic allograft nephropathy. Semin Nephrol 2007; 27: 414-429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2007.03.004

Gong N, Chen X, Ding Z, Ming C. Chronic allograft nephrophathy: The mechanisms and strategies. Hong Kong J Nephrol 2007; 9: 58-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1561-5413(08)60002-2

Velásquez SY, García LF, Alvarez CM. Las células T reguladoras y su influencia en la sobrevida del trasplante renal. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 2007; 67: 491-501.

Jeannet M, Pinn VW, Flax MH, Winn HJ, Russell PS. Humoral antibodies in renal allotransplantation in man. N Engl J Med 1970; 282: 111-117. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197001152820301

Moll S, Pascual M. Humoral rejection of organ allografts. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 2611-2618. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2005.01086.x

Vongwiwatana A, Tasanarong A, Hidalgo LG, Halloran PF. The role of B cells and alloantibody in the host response to human organ allografts. Immunol Rev 2003; 196: 197-218. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1600-065X.2003.00093.x

Solez K, Colvin RB, Racusen LC et al. Banff '05 Meeting Report: differential diagnosis of chronic allograft injury and elimination of chronic allograft nephropathy ('CAN'). Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 518-526. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01688.x

Colvin RB, Smith RN. Antibody-mediated organ-allograft rejection. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5: 807-817. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1702

Kamoun M. Mechanisms of chronic allograft dysfunction. Ther Drug Monit 2006; 28: 14- 18. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ftd.0000194499.32398.32

Yates PJ, Nicholson ML. The aetiology and pathogenesis of chronic allograft nephropathy. Transpl Immunol 2006; 16: 148-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2006.10.001

Vongwiwatana A, Gourishankar S, Campbell PM, Solez K, Halloran PF. Peritubular capillary changes and C4d deposits are associated with transplant glomerulopathy but not IgA nephropathy. Am J Transplant 2004; 4: 124-129. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1600-6143.2003.00294.x

Mauiyyedi S, Pelle PD, Saidman S et al. Chronic humoral rejection: identification of antibody-mediated chronic renal allograft rejection by C4d deposits in peritubular capillaries. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 574-582.

Terasaki PI. Humoral theory of transplantation. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 665-673. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.00135.x

Zarkhin V, Li L, Sarwal M. "To B or not to B?" B- cells and graft rejection. Transplantation 2008; 85: 1705-1714. https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e318177793e

Carsetti R, Rosado MM, Wardmann H. Peripheral development of B cells in mouse and man. Immunol Rev 2004; 197: 179-191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-2896.2004.0109.x

Rocha PN, Plumb TJ, Crowley SD, Coffman TM. Effector mechanisms in transplant rejection. Immunol Rev 2003; 196: 51-64. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1600-065X.2003.00090.x

Russell PS, Chase CM, Winn HJ, Colvin RB. Coronary atherosclerosis in transplanted mouse hearts. II. Importance of humoral immunity. J Immunol 1994; 152: 5135-5141.

Russell PS, Chase CM, Colvin RB. Alloantibody- and T cell-mediated immunity in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis: lack of progression to sclerotic lesions in B cell-deficient mice. Transplantation 1997; 64: 1531- 1536. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199712150-00005

Hancock WW, Buelow R, Sayegh MH, Turka LA. Antibody-induced transplant arteriosclerosis is prevented by graft expression of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic genes. Nat Med 1998; 4: 1392-1396. https://doi.org/10.1038/3982

Takemoto SK, Zeevi A, Feng S et al. National conference to assess antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplantation. Am J Trans- plant 2004; 4: 1033-1041. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00500.x

Soleimani B, Lechler RI, Hornick PI, George AJ. Role of alloantibodies in the pathogenesis of graft arteriosclerosis in cardiac transplantation. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 1781-1785. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01401.x

Smith JD, Lawson C, Yacoub MH, Rose ML. Activation of NF-kappa B in human endothelial cells induced by monoclonal and allospecific HLA antibodies. Int Immunol 2000; 12: 563- 571. https://doi.org/10.1093/intimm/12.4.563

Sacks SH, Chowdhury P, Zhou W. Role of the complement system in rejection. Curr Opin Immunol 2003; 15: 487-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-7915(03)00100-6

Shi C, Lee WS, He Q et al. Immunologic ba- sis of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 4051-4056. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.9.4051

Wewers MD, Marsh CB. Role of the antibody in the pathogenesis of transplant vascular sclerosis: a hypothesis. Transpl Immunol 1997; 5: 283-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-3274(97)80009-3

Noorchashm H, Greeley SA, Naji A. The role of t/b lymphocyte collaboration in the regulation of autoimmune and alloimmune responses. Immunol Res 2003; 27: 443-450. https://doi.org/10.1385/IR:27:2-3:443

Pelletier RP, Hennessy PK, Adams PW, VanBus- kirk AM, Ferguson RM, Orosz CG. Clinical significance of MHC-reactive alloantibodies that develop after kidney or kidney-pancreas trans- plantation. Am J Transplant 2002; 2: 134-141. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2002.020204.x

van Saase JL, van der Woude FJ, Thorogood J et al. The relation between acute vascular and interstitial renal allograft rejection and subsequent chronic rejection. Transplantation 1995; 59: 1280-1285. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199505000-00010

Sijpkens YW, Doxiadis II, De Fijter JW et al. Sharing cross-reactive groups of MHC class I improves long-term graft survival. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 1920-1927. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00753.x

Humar A, Kerr S, Gillingham KJ, Matas AJ. Features of acute rejection that increase risk for chronic rejection. Transplantation 1999; 68: 1200-1203. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199910270-00023

Humar A, Payne WD, Sutherland DE, Matas AJ. Clinical determinants of multiple acute rejection episodes in kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000; 69: 2357-2360. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200006150-00024

Joseph JT, Kingsmore DB, Junor BJ et al. The impact of late acute rejection after cadaveric kidney transplantation. Clin Transplant 2001; 15: 221-227. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-0012.2001.150401.x

Lee PC, Terasaki PI, Takemoto SK et al. All chronic rejection failures of kidney transplants were preceded by the development of HLA antibodies. Transplantation 2002; 74: 1192-1194. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200210270-00025

Theruvath TP, Saidman SL, Mauiyyedi S et al. Control of antidonor antibody production with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in renal allograft recipients with chronic rejection. Transplantation 2001; 72: 77-83. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200107150-00016

Regele H, Bohmig GA, Habicht A et al. Ca- pillary deposition of complement split product C4d in renal allografts is associated with basement membrane injury in peritubular and glomerular capillaries: a contribution of humoral immunity to chronic allograft rejection. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 2371-2380. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000025780.03790.0F

Nickeleit V, Zeiler M, Gudat F, Thiel G, Mi- hatsch MJ. Detection of the complement degradation product C4d in renal allografts: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 242-251.

Taylor CJ, Chapman JR, Ting A, Morris PJ. Characterization of lymphocytotoxic antibodies causing a positive crossmatch in renal transplantation. Relationship to primary and regraft outcome. Transplantation 1989; 48: 953-958. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-198912000-00011

Rodriguez LM, Paris SC, Arbelaez M et al. Kidney graft recipients with pretransplantation HLA CLASS I antibodies and high soluble CD30 are at high risk for graft loss. Hum Immunol 2007; 68: 652-660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2007.05.004

Sumitran-Holgersson S. HLA-specific alloantibodies and renal graft outcome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 897-904. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/16.5.897

Gebel HM, Bray RA, Nickerson P. Pre-transplant assessment of donor-reactive, HLA-specific antibodies in renal transplantation: contraindication vs. risk. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 1488-1500. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1600-6135.2003.00273.x

Le Bas-Bernardet S, Hourmant M, Valentin N et al. Identification of the antibodies involved in B-cell crossmatch positivity in renal transplantation. Transplantation 2003; 75: 477-482. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000047311.77702.59

Vasilescu ER, Ho EK, Colovai AI et al. Alloantibodies and the outcome of cadaver kidney allografts. Hum Immunol 2006; 67: 597-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2006.04.012

Susal C, Opelz G. Kidney graft failure and presensitization against HLA class I and class II antigens. Transplantation 2002; 73: 1269-1273. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200204270-00014

Susal C, Opelz G. Kidney graft failure and presensitization against HLA class I and class II antigens. Transplantation 2002; 73: 1269-1273. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200204270-00014

Gloor JM, Sethi S, Stegall MD et al. Transplant glomerulopathy: subclinical incidence and association with alloantibody. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 2124-2132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.01895.x

Campos EF, Tedesco-Silva H, Machado PG, Franco M, Medina-Pestana JO, Gerbase-DeLima M. Post-transplant anti-HLA class II antibodies as risk factor for late kidney allograft failure. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 2316-2320. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01503.x

Langan LL, Park LP, Hughes TL et al. Post-transplant HLA class II antibodies and high soluble CD30 levels are independently associated with poor kidney graft survival. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 847-856. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01691.x

Mao Q, Terasaki PI, Cai J et al. Extremely high association between appearance of HLA antibodies and failure of kidney grafts in a five-year longitudinal study. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 864-871. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01711.x

Racusen LC, Colvin RB, Solez K et al. Antibody-mediated rejection criteria - an addition to the Banff 97 classification of renal allograft rejection. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 708-714. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.00072.x

Muczynski KA, Cotner T, Anderson SK. Unusual expression of human lymphocyte antigen class II in normal renal microvascular endothelium. Kidney Int 2001; 59: 488-497. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.059002488.x

Cosio FG, Gloor JM, Sethi S, Stegall MD. Transplant glomerulopathy. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 492-496. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.02104.x

Gloor J, Cosio F, Lager DJ, Stegall MD. The spectrum of antibody-mediated renal allograft injury: implications for treatment. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 1367-1373. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02262.x

Le MA, Goldman M, Abramowicz D. Multiple pathways to allograft rejection. Transplantation 2002; 73: 1373-1381. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200205150-00001

Susal C, Opelz G. Options for immunologic support of renal transplantation through the HLA and immunology laboratories. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 1450-1456. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.01824.x

Terasaki PI, Ozawa M. Predictive value of HLA antibodies and serum creatinine in chronic rejection: results of a 2-year prospective trial. Transplantation 2005; 80: 1194-1197. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000174338.97313.5a

Valujskikh A, Heeger PS. Emerging roles of endothelial cells in transplant rejection. Curr Opin Immunol 2003; 15: 493-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-7915(03)00110-9

Reed EF. Signal transduction via MHC class I molecules in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Crit Rev Immunol 2003; 23: 109-128. https://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v23.i12.60

Harris PE, Bian H, Reed EF. Induction of high affinity fibroblast growth factor receptor expression and proliferation in human endothelial cells by anti-HLA antibodies: a possible mechanism for transplant atherosclerosis. J Immunol 1997; 159: 5697-5704.

Bian H, Reed EF. Alloantibody-mediated class I signal transduction in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells: enhancement by IFN- gamma and TNF-alpha. J Immunol 1999; 163: 1010-1018.

Jin YP, Singh RP, Du ZY, Rajasekaran AK, Ro- zengurt E, Reed EF. Ligation of HLA class I molecules on endothelial cells induces phosphorylation of Src, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase in an actin-dependent manner. J Immunol 2002; 168: 5415-5423. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.168.11.5415

Jin YP, Jindra PT, Gong KW, Lepin EJ, Reed EF. Anti-HLA class I antibodies activate endothelial cells and promote chronic rejection. Transplantation 2005; 79: S19-S21. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000153293.39132.44

Zou Y, Stastny P, Susal C, Dohler B, Opelz G. Antibodies against MICA antigens and kidneytransplant rejection. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1293-1300. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa067160

Rose ML. Activation of autoimmune B cells and chronic rejection. Transplantation 2005; 79: S22-S24. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000153294.38939.5F

Dunn MJ, Crisp SJ, Rose ML, Taylor PM, Yacoub MH. Anti-endothelial antibodies and coronary artery disease after cardiac transplantation. Lancet 1992; 339: 1566-1570. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(92)91832-S

Fredrich R, Toyoda M, Czer LS et al. The clinical significance of antibodies to human vascular endothelial cells after cardiac transplantation. Transplantation 1999; 67: 385-391. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199902150-00008

Le Bas-Bernardet S, Hourmant M, Coupel S, Bignon JD, Soulillou JP, Charreau B. Non-HLA- type endothelial cell reactive alloantibodies in pre-transplant sera of kidney recipients trigger apoptosis. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 167-177. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.00021.x

Ball B, Mousson C, Ratignier C, Guignier F, Glotz D, Rifle G. Antibodies to vascular endothelial cells in chronic rejection of renal allografts. Transplant Proc 2000; 32: 353-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-1345(99)00976-8

Jaramillo A, Naziruddin B, Zhang L et al. Activation of human airway epithelial cells by non-HLA antibodies developed after lung transplantation: a potential etiological factor for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Transplantation 2001; 71: 966-976. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200104150-00023

Jurcevic S, Ainsworth ME, Pomerance A et al. Antivimentin antibodies are an independent predictor of transplant-associated coronary artery disease after cardiac transplantation. Trans- plantation 2001; 71: 886-892. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200104150-00011

Nair S MAHA. Immunisation with vimentin causes rejection of syngeneic cardiac grafts. J Heart Lung Transplant 2004; 23: S132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2003.11.269

Bravo J, Quiroz Y, Pons H et al. Vimentin and heat shock protein expression are induced in the kidney by angiotensin and by nitric oxide inhibition. Kidney Int Suppl 2003; (86):S46-S51. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.64.s86.9.x

Mor-Vaknin N, Punturieri A, Sitwala K, Marko- vitz DM. Vimentin is secreted by activated macrophages. Nat Cell Biol 2003; 5: 59-63. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb898

Dragun D, Muller DN, Brasen JH et al. Angiotensin II type 1-receptor activating antibodies in renal-allograft rejection. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 558-569. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa035717

Bates RL, Frampton G, Rose ML, Murphy JJ. High diversity of non-human leukocyte antigens in transplant-associated coronary artery disease. Transplantation 2003; 75: 1347-1350. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000061790.08550.EC

Joosten SA, van Dixhoorn MG, Borrias MC et al. Antibody response against perlecan and collagen types IV and VI in chronic renal allograft rejection in the rat. Am J Pathol 2002; 160: 1301-1310. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62557-6

Joosten SA, Sijpkens YW, van H, V et al. Anti- body response against the glomerular basement membrane protein agrin in patients with transplant glomerulopathy. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 383-393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2005.00690.x

Akalin E, Watschinger B. Antibody-mediated rejection. Semin Nephrol 2007; 27: 393-407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2007.05.001

Collins AB, Schneeberger EE, Pascual MA et al. Complement activation in acute humoral renal allograft rejection: diagnostic significance of C4d deposits in peritubular capillaries. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 2208-2214.

Nickeleit V, Mihatsch MJ. Kidney transplants, antibodies and rejection: is C4d a magic marker? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 2232-2239. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfg304

Bohmig GA, Exner M, Habicht A et al. Capillary C4d deposition in kidney allografts: a specific marker of alloantibody-dependent graft injury. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 1091-1099.

Bohmig GA, Regele H, Exner M et al. C4d- positive acute humoral renal allograft rejection: effective treatment by immunoadsorption. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 2482-2489.

Lederer SR, Kluth-Pepper B, Schneeberger H, Albert E, Land W, Feucht HE. Impact of humoral alloreactivity early after transplantation on the long-term survival of renal allografts. Kidney Int 2001; 59: 334-341. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.00495.x

Herzenberg AM, Gill JS, Djurdjev O, Magil AB. C4d deposition in acute rejection: an independent long-term prognostic factor. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 234-241.

Regele H, Exner M, Watschinger B et al. Endothelial C4d deposition is associated with inferior kidney allograft outcome independently of cellular rejection. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 2058-2066. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/16.10.2058

Mauiyyedi S, Crespo M, Collins AB et al. Acute humoral rejection in kidney transplantation: II. Morphology, immunopathology, and pathologic classification. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 779- 787.

Martin L, Guignier F, Mousson C, Rageot D, Justrabo E, Rifle G. Detection of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies with flow cytometry in eluates and sera from renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. Transplantation 2003; 76: 395-400. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000078895.24606.45

Zou Y, Heinemann FM, Grosse-Wilde H et al. Detection of anti-MICA antibodies in patients awaiting kidney transplantation, during the posttransplant course, and in eluates from rejected kidney allografts by Luminex flow cytometry. Hum Immunol 2006; 67: 230-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2006.02.017

Akalin E, Murphy B, Seghal B, Schroppel B, Boccardo G, Bromberg J. Low prevalence of C4d positivity in chronic allograft nephropathy and transplant glomerulopathy biopsies. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17.

Zachary AA, Leffell MS. Detecting and moni- toring human leukocyte antigen-specific antibodies. Hum Immunol 2008; 69: 591-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2008.06.013

Jackson AM, Zachary AA. The problem of transplanting the sensitized patient: whose problem is it? Front Biosci 2008; 13: 1396-1412. https://doi.org/10.2741/2770

Christiaans MH, Overhof-de RR, Nieman F, van Hooff JP, van den Berg-Loonen EM. Do- nor-specific antibodies after transplantation by flow cytometry: relative change in fluorescence ratio most sensitive risk factor for graft survival. Transplantation 1998; 65: 427-433. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199802150-00024

Jindra PT, Jin YP, Rozengurt E, Reed EF. HLA class I antibody-mediated endothelial cell proliferation via the mTOR pathway. J Immunol 2008; 180: 2357-2366. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.4.2357

Haas M, Montgomery RA, Segev DL et al. Subclinical acute antibody-mediated rejection in positive crossmatch renal allografts. Am J Trans- plant 2007; 7: 576-585. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01657.x

Gjertson DW. A multi-factor analysis of kidney regraft outcomes. Clin Transpl 2002; 335-349.

Truong DQ, Darwish AA, Gras J et al. Immunological monitoring after organ transplantation: potential role of soluble CD30 blood level measurement. Transpl Immunol 2007; 17: 283- 287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2007.01.007

Golocheikine AS, Saini D, Ramachandran S, Trulock EP, Patterson A, Mohanakumar T. Soluble CD30 levels as a diagnostic marker for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following human lung transplantation. Transpl Immunol 2008; 18: 260-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2007.07.007

Sayegh MH. Why do we reject a graft? Role of indirect allorecognition in graft rejection. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 1967-1979. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00751.x

Womer KL, Stone JR, Murphy B, Chandraker A, Sayegh MH. Indirect allorecognition of donor class I and II major histocompatibility complex peptides promotes the development of transplant vasculopathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 2500-2506.

Bouaziz JD, Yanaba K, Tedder TF. Regulatory B cells as inhibitors of immune responses and inflammation. Immunol Rev 2008; 224: 201-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00661.x

Noorchashm H, Reed AJ, Rostami SY et al. B cell-mediated antigen presentation is required for the pathogenesis of acute cardiac allograft rejection. J Immunol 2006; 177: 7715-7722. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.11.7715

Yamada A, Chandraker A, Laufer TM, Gerth AJ, Sayegh MH, Auchincloss H, Jr. Recipient MHC class II expression is required to achieve long-term survival of murine cardiac allografts after costimulatory blockade. J Immunol 2001; 167: 5522-5526. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.167.10.5522

Yamada A, Laufer TM, Gerth AJ et al. Further analysis of the T-cell subsets and pathways of murine cardiac allograft rejection. Am J Trans- plant 2003; 3: 23-27. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.30105.x

Guillonneau C, Aubry V, Renaudin K et al. Inhibition of chronic rejection and development of tolerogenic T cells after ICOS-ICOSL and CD40-CD40L co-stimulation blockade. Trans- plantation 2005; 80: 546-554. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000165429.57421.D6

Niiro H, Clark EA. Regulation of B-cell fate by antigen-receptor signals. Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2: 945-956. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri955

Mak TW, Shahinian A, Yoshinaga SK et al. Costimulation through the inducible costimulator ligand is essential for both T helper and B cell functions in T cell-dependent B cell responses. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 765-772. https://doi.org/10.1038/ni947

Nurieva RI, Mai XM, Forbush K, Bevan MJ, Dong C. B7h is required for T cell activation, differentiation, and effector function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 14163-14168. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2335041100

Liang L, Sha WC. The right place at the right time: novel B7 family members regulate effector T cell responses. Curr Opin Immunol 2002; 14: 384-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-7915(02)00342-4

Dong C, Nurieva RI. Regulation of immune and autoimmune responses by ICOS. J Autoimmun 2003; 21: 255-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-8411(03)00119-7

Ozkaynak E, Gao W, Shemmeri N et al. Importance of ICOS-B7RP-1 costimulation in acu- te and chronic allograft rejection. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 591-596. https://doi.org/10.1038/89731

Mitchison NA. T-cell-B-cell cooperation. Nat Rev Immunol 2004; 4: 308-312. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1334

Shapiro-Shelef M, Calame K. Regulation of plasma-cell development. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5: 230-242. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1572

Ravetch JV, Lanier LL. Immune inhibitory receptors. Science 2000; 290: 84-89. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.290.5489.84

Bolland S, Ravetch JV. Spontaneous autoimmune disease in Fc(gamma)RIIB-deficient mice results from strain-specific epistasis. Immunity 2000; 13: 277-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1074-7613(00)00027-3

Moulin V, Andris F, Thielemans K, Maliszewski C, Urbain J, Moser M. B lymphocytes regulate dendritic cell (DC) function in vivo: increased interleukin 12 production by DCs from B celldeficient mice results in T helper cell type 1 deviation. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 475-482. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.192.4.475

Martin F, Chan AC. B cell immunobiology in di- sease: evolving concepts from the clinic. Annu Rev Immunol 2006; 24: 467-496. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.24.021605.090517

Kaser A, Dunzendorfer S, Offner FA et al. B lymphocyte-derived IL-16 attracts dendritic cells and Th cells. J Immunol 2000; 165: 2474- 2480. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.165.5.2474

Krzysiek R, Lefevre EA, Zou W et al. Antigen receptor engagement selectively induces macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta chemokine production in human B cells. J Immunol 1999; 162: 4455- 4463.

Evans JG, Chavez-Rueda KA, Eddaoudi A et al. Novel suppressive function of transitional 2 B cells in experimental arthritis. J Immunol 2007; 178: 7868-7878. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.12.7868

Hussain S, Delovitch TL. Intravenous transfu- sion of BCR-activated B cells protects NOD mice from type 1 diabetes in an IL-10-dependent manner. J Immunol 2007; 179: 7225-7232. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.11.7225

Mizoguchi A, Mizoguchi E, Takedatsu H, Blumberg RS, Bhan AK. Chronic intestinal inflammatory condition generates IL-10-producing regulatory B cell subset characterized by CD1d upregulation. Immunity 2002; 16: 219-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00274-1

Wolf SD, Dittel BN, Hardardottir F, Janeway CA, Jr. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction in genetically B cell-deficient mice. J Exp Med 1996; 184: 2271-2278. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.184.6.2271

Watanabe R, Fujimoto M, Ishiura N et al. CD19 expression in B cells is important for suppression of contact hypersensitivity. Am J Pathol 2007; 171: 560-570. https://doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2007.061279

Brummel R, Lenert P. Activation of marginal zone B cells from lupus mice with type A(D) CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol 2005; 174: 2429-2434. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.4.2429

Fillatreau S, Sweenie CH, McGeachy MJ, Gray D, Anderton SM. B cells regulate autoimmunity by provision of IL-10. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 944-950. https://doi.org/10.1038/ni833

Mauri C, Ehrenstein MR. The 'short' history of regulatory B cells. Trends Immunol 2008; 29: 34-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2007.10.004

Clatworthy MR, Smith KG. B cells in glomerulonephritis: focus on lupus nephritis. Semin Immunopathol 2007; 29: 337-353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-007-0092-1

Kerjaschki D, Regele HM, Moosberger I et al. Lymphatic neoangiogenesis in human kidney transplants is associated with immunologically active lymphocytic infiltrates. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 603-612. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000113316.52371.2E

Cassese G, Lindenau S, de BB et al. Inflamed kidneys of NZB / W mice are a major site for the homeostasis of plasma cells. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 2726-2732. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200109)31:9<2726::AID-IMMU2726>3.0.CO;2-H

Desvaux D, Le GS, Pastural M et al. Acute renal allograft rejections with major interstitial oedema and plasma cell-rich infiltrates: high gamma-interferon expression and poor clinical outcome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19: 933-939. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfh027

Hidalgo LG, Halloran PF. Role of IFN-gamma in allograft rejection. Crit Rev Immunol 2002; 22: 317-349. https://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v22.i4.50

Koch CA, Khalpey ZI, Platt JL. Accommodation: preventing injury in transplantation and disease. J Immunol 2004; 172: 5143-5148. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.9.5143

Alexandre GP, Squifflet JP, De BM et al. Present experiences in a series of 26 ABO-incompatible living donor renal allografts. Transplant Proc 1987; 19: 4538-4542.

Shishido S, Asanuma H, Tajima E et al. ABO- incompatible living-donor kidney transplantation in children. Transplantation 2001; 72: 1037-1042. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200109270-00010

Tang AH, Platt JL. Accommodation of grafts: implications for health and disease. Hum Immunol 2007; 68: 645-651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2007.04.003

Yu PB, Holzknecht ZE, Bruno D, Parker W, Platt JL. Modulation of natural IgM binding and complement activation by natural IgG antibodies: a role for IgG anti-Gal alpha1-3Gal antibo- dies. J Immunol 1996; 157: 5163-5168.

Mohiuddin MM, Ogawa H, Yin DP, Shen J, Galili U. Antibody-mediated accommodation of heart grafts expressing an incompatible carbohydrate antigen. Transplantation 2003; 75: 258-262. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000053616.61907.D5

Soares MP, Brouard S, Smith RN, Bach FH. Heme oxygenase-1, a protective gene that prevents the rejection of transplanted organs. Immunol Rev 2001; 184: 275-285. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-065x.2001.1840124.x

Tabata T, de PM, Keshavjee S, Liu M, Downey GP, Waddell TK. Accommodation after lung xenografting from hamster to rat. Transplantation 2003; 75: 607-612. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000053353.03389.1C

Salama AD, Delikouras A, Pusey CD et al. Transplant accommodation in highly sensitized patients: a potential role for Bcl-xL and alloantibody. Am J Transplant 2001; 1: 260-269. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2001.001003260.x

Narayanan K, Jaramillo A, Phelan DL, Mo- hanakumar T. Pre-exposure to sub-saturating concentrations of HLA class I antibodies confers resistance to endothelial cells against antibody complement-mediated lysis by regulating Bad through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Eur J Immunol 2004; 34: 2303-2312. https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.200324843

Park WD, Grande JP, Ninova D et al. Accommodation in ABO-incompatible kidney allografts, a novel mechanism of self-protection against antibody-mediated injury. Am J Trans- plant 2003; 3: 952-960. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.00179.x

Williams JM, Holzknecht ZE, Plummer TB, Lin SS, Brunn GJ, Platt JL. Acute vascular rejection and accommodation: divergent outcomes of the humoral response to organ transplantation. Transplantation 2004; 78: 1471-1478. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000140770.81537.64

Kirk AD, Baldwin WM, Cascalho MI, Chong AS, Sykes M, West LJ. American society of transplantation symposium on B cells in trans- plantation: harnessing humoral immunity from rodent models to clinical practice. Am J Trans- plant 2007; 7: 1464-1470. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.01815.x

King KE, Warren DS, Samaniego-Picota M, Campbell-Lee S, Montgomery RA, Baldwin WM, III. Antibody, complement and accommodation in ABO-incompatible transplants. Curr Opin Immunol 2004; 16: 545-549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2004.07.004

Ishida H, Tanabe K, Ishizuka T et al. The mechanism responsible for accommodation after living-related kidney transplantations across the blood barrier. Transpl Int 2005; 18: 716- 720. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2005.00131.x

Wang N, Lee JM, Tobiasch E et al. Induction of xenograft accommodation by modulation of elicited antibody responses1 2. Transplantation 2002; 74: 334-345. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200208150-00008

Green DR. Overview: apoptotic signaling pathways in the immune system. Immunol Rev 2003; 193: 5-9. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-065X.2003.00045.x

Defrance T. Mature B cells: apoptosis checkpoints. Transplantation 2005; 79: S4-S7. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000153289.42663.AE

Creagh EM, Conroy H, Martin SJ. Caspaseactivation pathways in apoptosis and immunity. Immunol Rev 2003; 193: 10-21. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-065X.2003.00048.x

Hennino A, Berard M, Krammer PH, Defrance T. FLICE-inhibitory protein is a key regulator of germinal center B cell apoptosis. J Exp Med 2001; 193: 447-458. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.193.4.447

Thome M, Tschopp J. Regulation of lymphocyte proliferation and death by FLIP. Nat Rev Immunol 2001; 1: 50-58. https://doi.org/10.1038/35095508

Cómo citar
1.
Nieto Ríos JF, Ramírez Barrera JD, Álvarez CM, García LF. Papel del linfocito B en el rechazo crónico del trasplante. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de enero de 2010 [citado 22 de enero de 2022];16(1-2):41-4. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/380
Publicado
2010-01-01
Sección
Inmunología