Utilidad clínica de la medición de la hormona antimülleriana en las mujeres

  • Carolina Henao-Ochoa Universidad de Antioquia
  • Juan D. Lasprilla-Tovar Universidad de Antioquia
  • Juan M. Alfaro-Velásquez Universidad de Antioquia
  • Germán Campuzano-Maya Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: hormona antimülleriana, mujeres, reserva ovárica, síndrome del ovario poliquístico, obesidad, envejecimiento ovárico, marcador tumoral.

Resumen

La hormona antimülleriana es una glicoproteína homodimérica perteneciente a la superfamilia del factor de crecimiento transformantes beta (TGF-β). Esta hormona desempeña un papel fundamental en la regresión de los conductos müllerianos en el embrión masculino. En los niños se produce en los testículos, por las células de Sertoli, hasta la pubertad y a partir de allí disminuye lentamente a valores residuales por el resto de la vida. En las mujeres la hormona antimülleriana es secretada por las células de la granulosa de pequeños folículos en el ovario, donde sus niveles reflejan con exactitud la reserva folicular ovárica. Por tal motivo, esta hormona es considerada un marcador extremadamente sensible del envejecimiento ovárico y una herramienta valiosa en el diagnóstico y el reconocimiento de la recurrencia de tumores de células de la granulosa. La evaluación de la hormona antimülleriana también es de importancia clínica en la predicción de la respuesta ovárica, el cese de la función ovárica y la reproducción asistida. Además, puede servir como marcador diagnóstico del síndrome de ovario poliquístico, en los casos en que el examen ultrasonográfico no sea posible de realizar. Finalmente, la medición de los niveles séricos de la hormona antimülleriana, durante la vida reproductiva de la mujer, representa una herramienta ideal para la evaluación de la reserva folicular ovárica. En esta revisión se presenta el rol fisiológico de la hormona antimülleriana en las mujeres, al igual que las principales utilidades clínicas de su medición y las pruebas de laboratorio disponibles para este fin.

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Biografía del autor/a

Carolina Henao-Ochoa, Universidad de Antioquia

Médica, especialista en Pediatría, Residente de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Juan D. Lasprilla-Tovar, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico, especialista en Pediatría, Residente de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Juan M. Alfaro-Velásquez, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico, especialista en Pediatría y Endocrinología Pediátrica. Director Departamento de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Germán Campuzano-Maya, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico, especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Docente Ad Honorem, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Coordinador Grupo de Investigación en Patología Clínica. Médico Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Henao-Ochoa C, Lasprilla-Tovar JD, Alfaro-Velásquez JM, Campuzano-Maya G. Utilidad clínica de la medición de la hormona antimülleriana en las mujeres. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de mayo de 2017 [citado 22 de abril de 2021];23(5-6):213-36. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/37
Publicado
2017-05-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio
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