Hepatitis C

  • Juan Carlos Restrepo Gutiérrez Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Universidad de Antioquia
  • Ana Isabel Toro Montoya Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.
Palabras clave: virus de la hepatitis B, hepatitis, epidemiología, historia natural, clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento, prevención.

Resumen

La hepatitis C es una enfermedad causada por el virus de la hepatitis C y es la principal causa de cirrosis y trasplante hepático en el mundo occidental. Se estima que el 3% de la población mundial está infectada por este virus. La mayoría de las infecciones son asintomáticas y cuando se manifiestan aparecen síntomas inespecíficos como fatiga, náusea, mialgias y fiebre, que pueden hacer difícil el diagnóstico inicial. En la progresión de la enfermedad a la etapa crónica participan factores relacionados con el virus, el hospedero y también algunos factores externos. El hallazgo de unas pruebas de laboratorio anormales o signos de cirrosis debe hacer pensar en una hepatitis C. Para el diagnóstico se dispone de pruebas serológicas y virológicas; las serológicas detectan anticuerpos contra el virus, en tanto que las virológicas detectan el RNA viral. La gran variedad de cuasiespecies y la variabilidad del virus de la hepatitis C no han permitido hasta ahora la síntesis de una vacuna que brinde protección.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Juan Carlos Restrepo Gutiérrez, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico especialista en Medicina Interna y Hepatología Clínica, MSc, PhD. Profesor Titular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Jefe Sección Gastrohepatología, Medicina Interna, Universidad de Antioquia. Miembro del Grupo de Gastrohepatología, Universidad de Antioquia. Miembro de la Unidad de Hepatología, Cirugía Hepatobiliar y Pancreática. Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Miembro del Programa de Trasplante de Hígado. Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Ana Isabel Toro Montoya, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica. MSc Virología. Coordinadora Científica, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A., Medellín, Colombia.

Referencias bibliográficas

Senecal DL, Morelli J. Hepatitis C virus infection: a current review. JAAPA 2007; 20: 21-25. https://doi.org/10.1097/01720610-200710000-00017

Kamal SM. Acute hepatitis C: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 1283-1297; quiz 1298. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.01825.x

Chevaliez S, Pawlotsky JM. Hepatitis C virus: virology, diagnosis and management of antiviral therapy. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 2461-2466. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v13.i17.2461

Moradpour D, Penin F, Rice CM. Replication of hepa- titis C virus. Nat Rev Microbiol 2007; 5: 453-463. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1645

Franciscus A. A brief history of hepatitis C. Hcspfacts- heet. http://www.hcvadvocate.org. Accesado en octu- bre 3 de 2011.

Feinstone SM, Kapikian AZ, Purcell RH, Alter HJ, Holland PV. Transfusion-associated hepatitis not due to viral hepatitis type A or B. N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 767-770. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197504102921502

Ferreon JC, Ferreon AC, Li K, Lemon SM. Molecu- lar determinants of TRIF proteolysis mediated by the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease. J Biol Chem 2005; 280: 20483-20492. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M500422200

Chen SL, Morgan TR. The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Int J Med Sci 2006; 3: 47-52. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.3.47

Simmonds P, Bukh J, Combet C, Deleage G, Enomoto N, Feinstone S, et al. Consensus proposals for a unified system of nomenclature of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology 2005; 42: 962-973. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20819

Agnello V, Abel G, Elfahal M, Knight GB, Zhang QX. Hepatitis C virus and other flaviviridae viruses enter cells via low density lipoprotein receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 12766-12771. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.22.12766

Bassett SE, Thomas DL, Brasky KM, Lanford RE. Viral persistence, antibody to E1 and E2, and hypervariable region 1 sequence stability in hepatitis C virus-inocula- ted chimpanzees. J Virol 1999; 73: 1118-1126. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.73.2.1118-1126.1999

Restrepo JC. Serologías en las hepatitis virales. Iatreia 2011; 24: 76-86.

Blanchard E, Belouzard S, Goueslain L, Wakita T, Dubuisson J, Wychowski C, et al. Hepatitis C virus entry depends on clathrin-mediated endocytosis. J Vi- rol 2006; 80: 6964-6972. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00024-06

Lemon SM, Walker CM, Alter MJ, Yi M. Hepatitis C virus. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds). Fields Virology, 5th edition. Philadelphia: Lipincott Williams & Wilkins Pubishers; pp. 1253-1304, 2007.

Penin F, Dubuisson J, Rey FA, Moradpour D, Pawlots- ky JM. Structural biology of hepatitis C virus. Hepatolo- gy 2004; 39: 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20032

Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2005; 5: 558-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70216-4

World Health Organization. Hepatitis C. Global alert and response. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/ whocdscsrlyo2003/en/index.html. Accesado en agosto 30 de 2011.

Deuffic-Burban S, Mohamed MK, Larouze B, Carrat F, Valleron AJ. Expected increase in hepatitis C-related mortality in Egypt due to pre-2000 infections. J Hepatol 2006; 44: 455-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2005.08.008

Zein NN. Clinical significance of hepatitis C virus geno- types. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000; 13: 223-235. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.13.2.223

Mendez-Sanchez N, Gutierrez-Grobe Y, Kobashi- Margain RA. Epidemiology of HCV infection in Latin America. Ann Hepatol 2010; 9 Suppl: 27-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1665-2681(19)31719-3

Wasley A, Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C: geo- graphic differences and temporal trends. Semin Liver Dis 2000; 20: 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-9506

Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 2436-2441. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v13.i17.2436

Spada E, Mele A, Ciccozzi M, Tosti ME, Bianco E, Szklo A, et al. Changing epidemiology of parenterally transmitted viral hepatitis: results from the hepatitis sur- veillance system in Italy. Dig Liver Dis 2001; 33: 778- 784. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1590-8658(01)80695-2

Bakr I, Rekacewicz C, El Hosseiny M, Ismail S, El Daly M, El-Kafrawy S, et al. Higher clearance of hepa- titis C virus infection in females compared with males. Gut 2006; 55: 1183-1187. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.078147

Soza A, Riquelme A, Arrese M. Routes of transmission of hepatitis C virus. Ann Hepatol 2010; 9 Suppl: 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1665-2681(19)31720-X

Paintsil E, He H, Peters C, Lindenbach BD, Heimer R. Survival of hepatitis C virus in syringes: implication for transmission among injection drug users. J Infect Dis 2010; 202: 984-990. https://doi.org/10.1086/656212

Hauri AM, Armstrong GL, Hutin YJ. The global burden of disease attributable to contaminated injections given in health care settings. Int J STD AIDS 2004; 15: 7-16. https://doi.org/10.1258/095646204322637182

Wilkins T, Malcolm JK, Raina D, Schade RR. Hepatitis C: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician 2010; 81: 1351-1357.

Williams I. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in the United States. Am J Med 1999; 107: 2S-9S. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00373-3

Dwyre DM, Fernando LP, Holland PV. Hepatitis B, he- patitis C and HIV transfusion-transmitted infections in the 21st century. Vox Sang 2011; 100: 92-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1423-0410.2010.01426.x

Hladik W, Kataaha P, Mermin J, Purdy M, Otekat G, Lackritz E, et al. Prevalence and screening costs of hepatitis C virus among Ugandan blood donors. Trop Med Int Health 2006; 11: 951-954. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01643.x

Hahn JA, Page-Shafer K, Lum PJ, Ochoa K, Moss AR. Hepatitis C virus infection and needle exchange use among young injection drug users in San Francisco. Hepatology 2001; 34: 180-187. https://doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2001.25759

Hutchinson SJ, Taylor A, Goldberg DJ, Gruer L. Fac- tors associated with injecting risk behaviour among serial community-wide samples of injecting drug users in Glasgow 1990-94: implications for control and pre- vention of blood-borne viruses. Addiction 2000; 95: 931-940. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2000.9569319.x

Aceijas C, Friedman SR, Cooper HL, Wiessing L, Stimson GV, Hickman M. Estimates of injecting drug users at the national and local level in developing and transitional countries, and gender and age distribution. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82 Suppl 3: iii10-17. https://doi.org/10.1136/sti.2005.019471

Contreras AM, Sotelo M, Celis A, Villalobos DB, Ancona-Piste O, Ochoa-Jimenez RJ, et al. [In Process Citation]. Salud Publica Mex 2011; 53 Suppl 1: S19- 25.

Yazdanpanah Y, De Carli G, Migueres B, Lot F, Cam- pins M, Colombo C, et al. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus transmission to health care workers after occu- pational exposure: a European case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 1423-1430. https://doi.org/10.1086/497131

Modi AA, Liang TJ. Hepatitis C: a clinical review. Oral Dis 2008; 14: 10-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01419.x

Thomas DL, Seeff LB. Natural history of hepatitis C. Clin Liver Dis 2005; 9: 383-398, vi. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cld.2005.05.003

Heller T, Seeff LB. Viral load as a predictor of pro- gression of chronic hepatitis C? Hepatology 2005; 42: 1261-1263. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20982

Irving WL. Acute hepatitis C virus infection: a neglec- ted disease? Gut 2006; 55: 1075-1077. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.085407

Latin American Association for the Study of the Li- ver Practice Guidelines. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Ann Hepatol 2010; 9 Suppl: 8-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1665-2681(19)31717-X

Seeff LB. The history of the "natural history" of hepati- tis C (1968-2009). Liver Int 2009; 29 Suppl 1: 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2008.01927.x

Fattovich G, Stroffolini T, Zagni I, Donato F. Hepa- tocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: incidence and risk factors. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: S35-50. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2004.09.014

Restrepo JC. Hepatitis virales. In: Vélez H, Rojas W, Borrero J, Restrepo J, editors. Fundamentos de Medi- cina. Enfermedades infecciosas. Editorial Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas CIB. Sexta edición; 2003. p. 169-174.

Alberti A, Vario A, Ferrari A, Pistis R. Review article: chronic hepatitis C--natural history and cofactors. Ali- ment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 22 Suppl 2: 74-78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02602.x

George E, Nadkarni GN, Estrella MM, Lucas GM, Sperati CJ, Atta MG, et al. The Impact of Hepatitis C Coinfection on Kidney Disease Related to Human Im- munodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Biopsy Study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2011; 90: 289-295. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0b013e31822f5915

Sterling RK, Sulkowski MS. Hepatitis C virus in the set- ting of HIV or hepatitis B virus coinfection. Semin Liver Dis 2004; 24 Suppl 2: 61-68. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-832930

Chu CM, Yeh CT, Liaw YF. Fulminant hepatic failure in acute hepatitis C: increased risk in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. Gut 1999; 45: 613-617. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.45.4.613

Hepatitis Foundation International. http://www.hepfi.org. Accesado el 10 de octubre de 2011.

Orland JR, Wright TL, Cooper S. Acute hepatitis C. Hepatology 2001; 33: 321-327. https://doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2001.22112

Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Rai RM, Anania FA, Schaeffer M, Galai N, et al. The natural history of he- patitis C virus infection: host, viral, and environmental factors. JAMA 2000; 284: 450-456. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.4.450

Carvajal JJ, Correa G, Restrepo JC. Hepatitis C aguda. Revisión de un caso. Acta Med Colomb 2008; 33: 28- 32.

Merican I, Sherlock S, McIntyre N, Dusheiko GM. Clinical, biochemical and histological features in 102 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Q J Med 1993; 86: 119-125.

Foster GR, Goldin RD, Thomas HC. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection causes a significant reduction in quali- ty of life in the absence of cirrhosis. Hepatology 1998; 27: 209-212. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.510270132

Rodger AJ, Jolley D, Thompson SC, Lanigan A, Crofts N. The impact of diagnosis of hepatitis C virus on qua- lity of life. Hepatology 1999; 30: 1299-1301. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.510300504

Spiegel BM, Younossi ZM, Hays RD, Revicki D, Rob- bins S, Kanwal F. Impact of hepatitis C on health rela- ted quality of life: a systematic review and quantitative assessment. Hepatology 2005; 41: 790-800. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20659

Tong MJ, el-Farra NS, Reikes AR, Co RL. Clinical outcomes after transfusion-associated hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1463-1466. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199506013322202

Bruno S, Crosignani A, Maisonneuve P, Rossi S, Silini E, Mondelli MU. Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b as a ma- jor risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: a seventeen-year prospective cohort study. Hepatology 2007; 46: 1350-1356. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.21826

Fattovich G, Giustina G, Degos F, Tremolada F, Dio- dati G, Almasio P, et al. Morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type C: a retrospective follow- up study of 384 patients. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 463-472. https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.1997.v112.pm9024300

Hu KQ, Tong MJ. The long-term outcomes of patients with compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and history of parenteral exposure in the United States. Hepatology 1999; 29: 1311-1316. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.510290424

Ferri C, Sebastiani M, Giuggioli D, Cazzato M, Lon- gombardo G, Antonelli A, et al. Mixed cryoglobuline- mia: demographic, clinical, and serologic features and survival in 231 patients. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2004; 33: 355-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2003.10.001

Liang TJ, Rehermann B, Seeff LB, Hoofnagle JH. Pa- thogenesis, natural history, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 296-305. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-132-4-200002150-00008

Garcia Ferrera WO, Nodarse Cuni H, Moredo Romo E. [Extrahepatic manifestations of infection with hepa- titis C virus]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2009; 29: 254- 261.

Gadano A, Galdame O, Marciano S. Diagnosis of pa- tients with suspected chronic hepatitis C infection. Ann Hepatol 2010; 9 Suppl: 34-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1665-2681(19)31721-1

O'Leary JG, Davis GL. Hepatitis C. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ (eds). Feldman: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier; pp. 1313-1331, 2010.

Asociación Española para el Estudio del Hígado, Asociación Española de Gastroenterología, Asocia- ción Latinoamericana para el Estudio del Hígado, Asociación Interamericana de Gastroenterología. Consenso para el tratamiento de las hepatitis B y C. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 29: 1-241.

Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL, Seeff LB. Diag- nosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology 2009; 49: 1335-1374. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.22759

Moradpour D, Cerny A, Heim MH, Blum HE. Hepa- titis C: an update. Swiss Med Wkly 2001; 131: 291- 298.

Maheshwari A, Thuluvath PJ. Management of acute hepatitis C. Clin Liver Dis 2010; 14: 169-176; x. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cld.2009.11.007

Lauer GM, Walker BD. Hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200107053450107

Idrovo V. Asociación Colombiana de Hepatología. http:// www.higadocolombia.org/index.php?option=com_co ntent&view=article&id=45:aproximacionterapeutica- a-la-hepatitis-por-virus-c. Accesado en octubre 14 de 2011.

Ishiguro S, Inoue M, Tanaka Y, Mizokami M, Iwasaki M, Tsugane S. Impact of viral load of hepatitis C on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma: A population- based cohort study (JPHC Study). Cancer Lett 2011; 300: 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2010.10.002

Michaels AJ, Nelson DR. New therapies in the mana- gement of hepatitis C virus. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2010; 26: 196-201. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0b013e3283383c8f

Soriano V, Peters MG, Zeuzem S. New therapies for hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 313-320. https://doi.org/10.1086/595848

Murray KF, Shah U, Mohan N, Heller S, Gonzalez- Peralta RP, Kelly D, et al. Chronic hepatitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008; 47: 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e318181b08b

Castañeda R, Muñoz LE. Hepatitis víricas agudas. In: Muñoz LE, ed. Hepatología, 1a ed. México, DF: Mc- Graw Hill; pp. 75-89, 2007.

De la Vega A, Frauca E. Conducta ante la hepatitis por el VHC. In: Jara P, Coordinadora. Protocolos diagnósti- cos y terapéuticos en Pediatría, tomo 5: Gastroentero- logía, Hepatología, Nutrición. Asociación Española de Pediatría; 2002: 203-211.

Loomba R, Rivera MM, McBurney R, Park Y, Haynes- Williams V, Rehermann B, et al. The natural history of acute hepatitis C: clinical presentation, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33: 559-565. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04549.x

Wright M, Grieve R, Roberts J, Main J, Thomas HC. Health benefits of antiviral therapy for mild chronic hepatitis C: randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2006; 10: 1-113, iii. https://doi.org/10.3310/hta10210

Grieve R, Roberts J, Wright M, Sweeting M, DeAn- gelis D, Rosenberg W, et al. Cost effectiveness of in- terferon alpha or peginterferon alpha with ribavirin for histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2006; 55: 1332-1338. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2005.064774

Sroczynski G, Esteban E, Conrads-Frank A, Schwarzer R, Muhlberger N, Wright D, et al. Long-term effecti- veness and cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatment in hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 2010; 17: 34-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01147.x

Flisiak R, Parfieniuk A. Investigational drugs for hepa- titis C. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2010; 19: 63-75. https://doi.org/10.1517/13543780903431034

Cómo citar
1.
Restrepo Gutiérrez JC, Toro Montoya AI. Hepatitis C. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de septiembre de 2011 [citado 26 de septiembre de 2021];17(9-10):411-28. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/368
Publicado
2011-09-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio

Más sobre este tema