Hepatitis A

  • Juan Carlos Restrepo Gutiérrez Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe
  • Ana Isabel Toro Montoya Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.
Palabras clave: hepatitis A, virus de la hepatitis A, VHA, clínica, diagnóstico, epidemiología, patogénesis, prevención.

Resumen

La hepatitis causada por el virus de la hepatitis A es una enfermedad aguda, frecuente a nivel mundial. Aunque permanece endémica en países en desarrollo, las tasas de seroprevalencia en los países desarrollados continúan disminuyendo. En los niños la infección aguda usualmente es asintomática; sin embargo, en los adultos se pueden presentar una variedad de manifestaciones clínicas que van desde leves hasta una falla hepática fulminante, la cual afortunadamente, es muy poco frecuente. La transmisión de virus es generalmente por la ingestión de agua y alimentos contaminados con materia fecal que está infectada con el virus. El diagnóstico de la  hepatitis A se basa en las pruebas de laboratorio, apoyadas en la búsqueda de anticuerpos tipo IgM, específicos para el virus de la hepatitis A. La inmunoprofilaxis con gamma globulina anti-VHA puede prevenir y atenuar la enfermedad en personas expuestas al virus. La vacuna por su parte, induce inmunidad a largo plazo y abre la posibilidad a la erradicación de esta enfermedad en el mundo.

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Biografía del autor/a

Juan Carlos Restrepo Gutiérrez, Universidad de Antioquia, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe

Médico especialista en Medicina Interna y Hepatología Clínica, MSc, PhD. Profesor Titular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Jefe Sección Gastrohepatología, Medicina Interna, Universidad de Antioquia. Miembro del Grupo de Gastrohepatología, Universidad de Antioquia. Miembro de la Unidad de Hepatología, Cirugía Hepatobiliar y Pancreática, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Miembro del Programa de Trasplante de Hígado, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe-Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Ana Isabel Toro Montoya, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica. MSc Virología. Coordinadora Científica, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A., Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Restrepo Gutiérrez JC, Toro Montoya AI. Hepatitis A. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de enero de 2011 [citado 26 de septiembre de 2021];17(1-2):11-2. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/320
Publicado
2011-01-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio

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