Actualización en diagnóstico del dengue: evolución de las técnicas y su aplicación real en la clínica

  • Laura Gutiérrez Ruiz Universidad de Antioquia
  • Diana Carolina Quintero Gil Universidad de Antioquia
  • Marlén Martínez Gutiérrez Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: virus dengue, dengue, pruebas inmunológicas, técnicas de diagnóstico molecular, diagnóstico precoz.

Resumen

El dengue es la enfermedad viral transmitida por vectores de mayor importancia en el mundo. Debido a que hasta el momento no existe una vacuna licenciada para la prevención de la infección ni una terapia específica para controlar la enfermedad, el diagnóstico temprano y específico resulta ser una herramienta de vital importancia para brindar un tratamiento rápido y oportuno al paciente. Aunque hace más de seis décadas se dispone de una variedad de técnicas de laboratorio para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad, es frecuente encontrar que no exista un consenso en el personal o en las entidades colombianas encargadas del diagnóstico de laboratorio sobre las ventajas y las limitaciones de estas técnicas, lo que dificulta dicho diagnóstico. La respuesta inmune frente al virus, y se pueden presentar reacciones cruzadas con otros virus genéticamente relacionados, la posibilidad de falsos positivos es alta. Principalmente, por esta razón, en los últimos años ha aumentado el desarrollo y la validación de técnicas moleculares, ya que son más sensibles, específicas y rápidas que las técnicas celulares e inmunológicas. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes, se hace necesario comparar a la luz de la literatura disponible la utilidad real de las técnicas de laboratorio existentes, clasificándolas en celulares, inmunológicas y moleculares.

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Biografía del autor/a

Laura Gutiérrez Ruiz, Universidad de Antioquia

Estudiante de Microbiología y Bioanálisis. Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Diana Carolina Quintero Gil, Universidad de Antioquia

Bióloga. MSc en Biología. Investigador Asociado. Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales-PECET. Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Marlén Martínez Gutiérrez, Universidad de Antioquia

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica. MSc en Microbiología. PhD en Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas-Virología. Docente-Investigador. Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales-PECET. Grupo de Investigación en Microbiología Básica y Aplicada. Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Gutiérrez Ruiz L, Quintero Gil DC, Martínez Gutiérrez M. Actualización en diagnóstico del dengue: evolución de las técnicas y su aplicación real en la clínica. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de septiembre de 2012 [citado 5 de octubre de 2022];18(9-10):411-4. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/304
Publicado
2012-09-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio