Actualización en cáncer de próstata: generalidades y diagnóstico

  • Pablo Báez Benavides Universidad de Chile
  • Ricardo Armisén Yañez Universidad de Chile
Palabras clave: cáncer de próstata, próstata, antígeno específico de próstata, fracción libre del antígeno específico de próstata, biopsia prostática, sistema Gleason.

Resumen

El cáncer de próstata es una enfermedad clínicamente caracterizada por un periodo de latencia largo y un crecimiento tumoral lento. En la actualidad, es un problema de gran importancia para la salud pública, pues es el segundo cáncer más frecuentemente diagnosticado y corresponde a la sexta causa de muerte por cáncer en hombres en el mundo. Se caracteriza por una gran heterogeneidad clínica y molecular. Su diagnóstico se basa en el uso de tres pruebas fundamentales: el examen del tacto rectal y la medición de los niveles séricos del antígeno específico de próstata (AEP), los cuales se usan frecuentemente en el tamizaje, y la biopsia prostática, mediante la cual se confirma el diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata. Actualmente, el AEP se ha constituido en la principal herramienta tamiz para el cáncer de próstata; no obstante, existe una gran controversia en torno a su uso. Por ello, están siendo ampliamente estudiados nuevos biomarcadores, a fin de disponer de pruebas diagnósticas más sensibles y específicas. Dado que el AEP es una prueba ampliamente utilizada internacionalmente y que han surgido biomarcadores adicionales para el diagnóstico temprano del cáncer de próstata, es de fundamental importancia que el personal de la salud en general y el personal de laboratorio en particular puedan contar con información con respecto al uso de éstas y su relación con otras herramientas diagnósticas, además de otros aspectos generales del cáncer de próstata.

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Biografía del autor/a

Pablo Báez Benavides, Universidad de Chile

Microbiólogo y Bioanalista. Estudiante Magíster en Ciencias Biológicas y Médicas, mención Genética. Facultad de Medicina, Escuela de Postgrados, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Ricardo Armisén Yañez, Universidad de Chile

Médico cirujano, Doctor en Ciencias Biomédicas. Profesor Asistente, Centro de Estudios Moleculares de la Célula, Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, U-CANCER: Red de Medicina Traslacional en Cáncer. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

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Cómo citar
1.
Báez Benavides P, Armisén Yañez R. Actualización en cáncer de próstata: generalidades y diagnóstico. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de julio de 2012 [citado 5 de octubre de 2022];18(7-8):333-54. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/293
Publicado
2012-07-01
Sección
Oncología