Utilidad clínica de la agregometría plaquetaria

  • Natalia María Guevara Arismendy Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.
  • Gloria Elcy Escobar Gallo Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico
  • Germán Campuzano Maya Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico
Palabras clave: agregación plaquetaria, agregometría, agonistas plaquetarios, ristocetina, enfermedad de von Willebrand, trombastenia de Glanzmann, síndrome de Bernard Soulier, deficiencia de gránulos plaquetarios, síndrome de la plaqueta pegajosa.

Resumen

La acción de las plaquetas en la hemostasia primaria comprende la adhesión a los vasos sanguíneos afectados, la activación, la secreción del contenido granular, y posteriormente, la agregación plaquetaria para la formación del tapón hemostático primario. Bajo las condiciones fisiológicas de flujo vascular, estos procesos requieren la acción sinérgica de varias proteínas y receptores plaquetarios, como también de agonistas que inducen la activación plaquetaria. Por ello, las mutaciones de los genes que codifican para moléculas y receptores de superficie implicados en estos procesos darán origen a desórdenes hemorrágicos como la enfermedad de von Willebrand, la trombastenia de Glanzmann, el síndrome de Bernard Soulier y la deficiencia de gránulos plaquetarios, entre otros. El diagnóstico de estas enfermedades se realiza mediante ensayos de función plaquetaria que simulan los procesos fisiológicos de activación, adhesión, liberación del contenido granular y agregación. Una de las pruebas de función plaquetaria más utilizada es la agregometría. En este artículo de revisión se describe la utilidad de esta prueba para el diagnóstico de desórdenes hemorrágicos hereditarios y del síndrome de la plaqueta pegajosa, un desorden trombótico hereditario caracterizado por hiperagregabilidad. Adicionalmente, se revisa el fundamento de esta prueba, las condiciones preanalíticas, analíticas y posanalíticas, las indicaciones, las contraindicaciones y la interpretación de los resultados.

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Biografía del autor/a

Natalia María Guevara Arismendy, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A.

Microbióloga y Bioanalista. Estudiante de Maestría en Microbiología y Bioanálisis, énfasis Hematología, Universidad de Antioquia. Coordinadora científica Editora Médica Colombiana S.A. Medellín, Colombia.

Gloria Elcy Escobar Gallo, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica. Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico. Medellín, Colombia.

Germán Campuzano Maya, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico

Médico, Especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Docente, Ad Honorem, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Médico Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico. Medellín,Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Guevara Arismendy NM, Escobar Gallo GE, Campuzano Maya G. Utilidad clínica de la agregometría plaquetaria. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de julio de 2012 [citado 5 de octubre de 2022];18(7-8):311-32. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/292
Publicado
2012-07-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio