SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: el virus, la enfermedad y la pandemia

Palabras clave: COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, epidemiología, diagnóstico, manifestaciones clínicas, tratamiento.

Resumen

El brote de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), causado por el virus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo tipo-2 (SARS-CoV-2), fue declarado como una pandemia en marzo de 2020. Las tasas de letalidad se estiman entre 1% y 3%, afectando principalmente a los adultos mayores y a aquellos con comorbilidades, como hipertensión, diabetes, enfermedad cardiovascular y cáncer. El periodo de incubación promedio es de 5 días, pero puede ser hasta de 14 días. Muchos pacientes infectados son asintomáticos; sin embargo, debido a que liberan grandes cantidades de virus, son un desafío permanente para contener la propagación de la infección, causando el colapso de los sistemas de salud en las áreas más afectadas. La vigilancia intensa es vital para controlar la mayor propagación del virus, y el aislamiento sigue siendo el medio más efectivo para bloquear la transmisión. Este artículo tiene como objetivo revisar el virus causante de esta nueva pandemia COVID-19 que afecta al mundo, mayor aún que la de influenza A H1N1 en 2009, la cual significó la muerte de cientos de miles de personas en todo el mundo. Se abordan temas como el patógeno, la epidemiología, las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento.

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Biografía del autor/a

Francisco Javier Díaz-Castrillón, Universidad de Antioquia

Médico, Especialista en Microbiología y Parasitología Médicas, MSc en Epidemiología Clínica, PhD en Virología. Profesor, Facultad de Medicina, Sede de Investigación Universitaria (SIU), Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

Ana Isabel Toro-Montoya, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica. MSc en Virología. Directora Científica, Editora Médica Colombiana S.A. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Díaz-Castrillón FJ, Toro-Montoya AI. SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: el virus, la enfermedad y la pandemia. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 5 de mayo de 2020 [citado 18 de septiembre de 2020];24(3):183-05. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/268
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2020-05-05
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