Streptococcus agalactiae en gestantes: diagnóstico y profilaxis

  • Jaime Alberto López Vargas Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico
  • Germán Campuzano Maya Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico
Palabras clave: Streptococcus agalactiae, profilaxis antibiótica, infecciones estreptocócicas.

Resumen

Streptococcus agalactiae o Streptococcus del Grupo B es la principal bacteria que causa enfermedad invasiva temprana en los neonatos. La bacteria es transmitida durante el parto al 10% a 63% de los fetos de madre con colonización recto-vaginal; aproximadamente un 2% de los neonatos que adquieren la bacteria desarrollan una enfermedad invasiva y la mortalidad es de aproximadamente el 2% al 3% en los neonatos a término y hasta del 20% en prematuros. Se ha demostrado que la administración de antibióticos a la madre colonizada, al momento del parto, puede prevenir la transmisión de la bacteria y como tal, la enfermedad en el neonato; de hecho, esta práctica ha disminuido la incidencia de la enfermedad invasiva temprana en Estados Unidos de 1,7 casos/1.000 nacidos vivos, a comienzos de los años 1990, a 0,3 casos/1.000 nacidos vivos a partir del año 2003. Por tal razón, se recomienda el tamizaje de las gestantes y el método estándar recomendado para determinar que una embarazada está colonizada es el cultivo de una muestra de recto y vagina entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. En este sentido, los laboratorios clínicos deben estar preparados para ofrecer los estudios relacionados con esta bacteria, mientras que la comunidad médica debe incorporar a la rutina la tamización y la profilaxis universal de las embarazadas colonizadas por Streptococcus agalactiae. En este módulo se describirán los aspectos generales de la colonización materna por Streptococcus agalactiae, las condiciones para su diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de la enfermedad invasiva temprana neonatal.

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Biografía del autor/a

Jaime Alberto López Vargas, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico

Médico especialista en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica. Coordinador sección de Microbiología, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico.

Germán Campuzano Maya, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico

Médico especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Docente, Ad Honorem, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Médico Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
López Vargas JA, Campuzano Maya G. Streptococcus agalactiae en gestantes: diagnóstico y profilaxis. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de julio de 2013 [citado 5 de octubre de 2022];19(7-8). Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/233
Publicado
2013-07-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio