Interpretación de las pruebas de función tiroidea

  • Santiago Forero-Saldarriaga Fundación Universitaria San Martín
  • José D. Puerta-Rojas IPS Sura
  • Laura Correa-Parra Comfama
Palabras clave: enfermedad tiroidea, prueba de función tiroidea, hormona estimulante de tiroides, hormonas tiroideas, tiroxina, triyodotironina.

Resumen

Los desórdenes de la glándula tiroides son comunes y pueden afectar hasta el 10% de la población en general. En muchas ocasiones los síntomas pueden ser inespecíficos, por lo que el médico en busca de un trastorno tiroideo debe llegar a un diagnóstico funcional y anatómico. Las mediciones séricas de las hormonas tiroideas confirman si hay un exceso, un déficit o si las concentraciones son normales. Para ello, se requiere un rango de referencia de la población local, y específicamente por grupos de edad, para una correcta interpretación de las pruebas de función tiroidea. Las hormonas tiroideas juegan un papel fundamental en el sistema endocrino, controlan el metabolismo general del cuerpo, el desarrollo neural, el crecimiento normal y la maduración de los huesos, así como funciones cardiovasculares y renales, entre otras. En esta revisión se pretende dar una aproximación a las pruebas tiroideas más relevantes, partiendo de la biosíntesis y secreción de las hormonas tiroideas, hasta llegar al abordaje para un diagnóstico inicial del paciente con trastorno tiroideo, mencionando los aspectos más importantes de los diferentes patrones tiroideos. El tratamiento detallado de cada uno de ellos, supera las expectativas de esta revisión.

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Biografía del autor/a

Santiago Forero-Saldarriaga, Fundación Universitaria San Martín

Médico General. Grupo de Investigación Clínica Antioquia (CASA). Itagüí, Colombia. Grupo de Estudio de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Crónicas (GEINCRO). Fundación Universitaria San Martín. Sabaneta, Colombia.

José D. Puerta-Rojas, IPS Sura

Médico General. Consulta Externa, IPS Sura. Medellín, Colombia.

Laura Correa-Parra, Comfama

Médico General. Consulta Externa, Comfama. Itagüí, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Forero-Saldarriaga S, Puerta Rojas JD, Correa-Parra L. Interpretación de las pruebas de función tiroidea. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 3 de marzo de 2020 [citado 26 de noviembre de 2020];24(2):93-109. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/209
Publicado
2020-03-03
Sección
Artículos de revisión