Síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa

  • Germán Campuzano-Maya Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico
  • Gloria E. Escobar-Gallo Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico
Palabras clave: trastornos de las plaquetas sanguíneas, trombofilia, agregación plaquetaria, pruebas de función plaquetaria, inhibidores de agregación plaquetaria.

Resumen

El síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa es una trombofilia hereditaria, de carácter autosómico dominante, caracterizada por aumento in vitro de la agregación plaquetaria en respuesta a bajas concentraciones de epinefrina y/o adenosindifosfato (ADP) que se expresa como un estado protrombótico, tanto arterial como venoso. De acuerdo con el patrón de la agregometría plaquetaria con diferentes concentraciones de epinefrina y ADP, se presentan tres formas: síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa tipo I, hiperagregación plaquetaria con epinefrina y ADP; síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa tipo II, hiperagregación plaquetaria con epinefrina sola; y, síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa tipo III, hiperagregación plaquetaria con ADP solo. Las manifestaciones clínicas están relacionadas con la predisposición a trombosis arteriales o venosas, que se expresan como isquemia coronaria o cerebral, isquemia de vasos retinianos y trastornos de la microcirculación placentaria que puede asociarse con restricción del crecimiento intrauterino del feto, preeclampsia, eclampsia y pérdidas fetales, entre otras manifestaciones. El diagnóstico del síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa se establece mediante la agregación plaquetaria al demostrar la hiperagregación de las plaquetas inducida por pequeñas dosis de epinefrina y/o ADP. El tratamiento se basa en la administración de antiagregantes plaquetarios, siendo la aspirina a baja dosis la droga ideal y el clopidogrel cuando hay resistencia a la aspirina o esta está contraindicada. El objetivo de este módulo es revisar la literatura médica mundial sobre este nuevo síndrome que debe ser tenido en cuenta en el diagnóstico y manejo de la trombofilia como una nueva opción para el paciente afectado por uno de estos síntomas.

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Biografía del autor/a

Germán Campuzano-Maya, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico

Médico especialista en Hematología y Patología Clínica. Docente, Ad Honorem, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia. Médico Director, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico. Medellín, Colombia.

Gloria E. Escobar-Gallo, Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico

Bacterióloga y Laboratorista Clínica. Laboratorio Clínico Hematológico. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Campuzano-Maya G, Escobar-Gallo GE. Síndrome de plaqueta pegajosa. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de noviembre de 2014 [citado 8 de diciembre de 2021];20(11-12):513-28. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/198
Publicado
2014-11-01
Sección
La Clínica y el Laboratorio

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