Inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides, treinta años después de su implementación

  • Luisa F. Calderón-Mendoza Universidad CES, Centro de Medicina Reproductiva CONCEVIDAS
  • Walter D. Cardona-Maya Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: inyecciones de esperma intracitoplasmáticas, fertilidad, análisis de semen, técnicas reproductivas.

Resumen

La infertilidad es una enfermedad que se caracteriza por la imposibilidad de lograr un embarazo después de más de 12 meses de relaciones sexuales; como consecuencia, existen tratamientos para manejar este trastorno. Uno de los tratamientos de reproducción asistida es la inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (ICSI), la cual fue implementada en 1992 para tratar parejas con el factor masculino asociado a la causa de infertilidad. Actualmente, esta técnica es indicada para la infertilidad sin causa aparente, fallas anteriores en los procesos de fertilización in vitro, edad materna avanzada, oocitos de mala calidad, entre otros. La inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides comienza con una estimulación ovárica controlada mediante gonadotropinas y la aspiración folicular para obtener los oocitos. Simultáneamente se procesa la muestra de semen y posteriormente se realiza la microinyección del espermatozoide elegido al interior del oocito. Por otro lado, los parámetros seminales y funcionales han adquirido gran importancia debido al papel determinante en el éxito de la inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides, especialmente la integridad del ADN espermático. Finalmente, la inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides permite que los pacientes con alteraciones seminales tengan la posibilidad de concebir un hijo biológico. En esta revisión se describen los fundamentos de esta técnica y su relación con los parámetros seminales y la fertilidad.

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Biografía del autor/a

Luisa F. Calderón-Mendoza, Universidad CES, Centro de Medicina Reproductiva CONCEVIDAS

Bióloga, estudiante de Maestría, Universidad CES, Centro de Medicina Reproductiva CONCEVIDAS. Medellín, Colombia.

Walter D. Cardona-Maya, Universidad de Antioquia

Bacteriólogo y Laboratorista Clínico, MSc en Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas, PhD en Biología. Docente Grupo Reproducción, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Calderón-Mendoza LF, Cardona-Maya WD. Inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides, treinta años después de su implementación. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de septiembre de 2015 [citado 29 de noviembre de 2020];21(9-10):431-44. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/139
Publicado
2015-09-01
Sección
Salud sexual y reproductiva