La próstata desde una perspectiva inmunológica

Palabras clave: próstata, prostatitis, hiperplasia prostática benigna, cáncer de próstata, infección, inflamación.

Resumen

Los procesos inflamatorios e infecciosos que se desencadenan en la próstata, primordial glándula reproductiva masculina, originan las tres principales enfermedades de este órgano: prostatitis, hiperplasia prostática benigna y cáncer. Para entender la relación que existe entre estas tres patologías y los procesos de infección e inflamación, se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica, a conveniencia, en la base de datos PubMed, empleando los términos próstata, prostatitis, hiperplasia prostática benigna y cáncer de próstata. La literatura revisada resalta la importancia del adecuado funcionamiento del sistema inmune en el tejido prostático para eliminar los microorganismos causantes de infecciones, proceso a través del cual se desencadena la inflamación del tejido. Además, infecciones urinarias ascendentes, que culminan en prostatitis crónica, favorecen el desarrollo de la hiperplasia prostática benigna, agrandamiento y fibrosis de la próstata en hombres adultos, e incluso su progresión a cáncer en individuos genéticamente susceptibles. Por otro lado, las limitaciones en el diagnóstico de las alteraciones prostáticas promueven la inflamación crónica, y el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos de amplio espectro para el tratamiento de la prostatitis, impulsa la diseminación sexual de microorganismos multirresistentes al tratamiento. Las alteraciones prostáticas, en especial la prostatitis, continúan siendo patologías enigmáticas de difícil diagnóstico y tratamiento. El estudio de la próstata, sus alteraciones y su relación con el sistema inmune contribuirán a limitar el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos y a reducir los costos en salud y los efectos sobre la calidad de vida de los individuos afectados.

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Biografía del autor/a

Jenniffer Puerta-Suárez, Universidad de Antioquia

Microbióloga, MSc en Biología. Estudiante de Doctorado, Grupo Reproducción, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia

Walter D. Cardona-Maya, Universidad de Antioquia

Bacteriólogo, MSc en Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas, PhD en Biología. Docente, Grupo Reproducción, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Sede de Investigación Universitaria (SIU), Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia

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Cómo citar
1.
Puerta-SuárezJ, Cardona-Maya WD. La próstata desde una perspectiva inmunológica. Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de enero de 2020 [citado 8 de diciembre de 2019];24(1):13-5. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/12
Publicado
2020-01-01
Sección
Artículos de revisión