La prueba de esfuerzo electrocardiográfica: utilidad en el diagnóstico y pronóstico de la enfermedad coronaria

  • Jaime A. Gallo-Villegas Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR
  • Dagnovar Aristizábal-Ocampo Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR
Palabras clave: dolor en el pecho, enfermedad coronaria, prueba de esfuerzo, técnicas de diagnóstico cardiovascular.

Resumen

La prueba de esfuerzo electrocardiográfica evalúa los ajustes fisiológicos en respuesta a un aumento en el metabolismo; además, permite establecer el diagnóstico y pronóstico de diferentes enfermedades cardiovasculares. Esta prueba continúa siendo el método diagnóstico de más fácil acceso y menos costoso para la evaluación inicial de pacientes con síntomas estables, que tienen un riesgo bajo o intermedio de enfermedad coronaria, y en aquellas personas con dolor torácico que consultan al servicio de urgencias. Sin embargo, posee limitaciones en la exactitud diagnóstica, con falsos negativos alrededor del 40% (sensibilidad del 60%) y falsos positivos alrededor del 10% (especificidad del 90%). En este artículo se discute información sobre la prueba de esfuerzo electrocardiográfica, su aplicación tanto para el diagnóstico como el pronóstico y su utilidad en la toma de decisiones en los pacientes en quienes se sospecha o tienen una enfermedad coronaria. Igualmente, se presentan aspectos prácticos para la realización del procedimiento, una propuesta de informe con los principales hallazgos y algunos ejemplos clínicos.

 

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Biografía del autor/a

Jaime A. Gallo-Villegas, Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR

Médico, especialista en Medicina Aplicada a la Actividad Física y al Deporte, MSc en Epidemiología, candidato a PhD en Epidemiología, Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR, Soluciones Integrales en Riesgo Cardiovascular. Medellín, Colombia.

Dagnovar Aristizábal-Ocampo, Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR

Médico, cardiólogo, especialista en Ecocardiografía y Enfermedades Hipertensivas. Director científico, Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR, Soluciones Integrales en Riesgo Cardiovascular. Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
1.
Gallo-Villegas JA, Aristizábal-Ocampo D. La prueba de esfuerzo electrocardiográfica: utilidad en el diagnóstico y pronóstico de la enfermedad coronaria . Med. Lab. [Internet]. 1 de enero de 2015 [citado 17 de octubre de 2021];21(1-2):63-4. Disponible en: https://medicinaylaboratorio.com/index.php/myl/article/view/110
Publicado
2015-01-01
Sección
Tecnología